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Contents

1. Names

In TEI P5 there are new ways to link names of people/places/organizations with information about the things themselves.

1.1. Linking Names and Their Referents

The name-related elements provided by the 'namesdates' module are members of the 'att.naming' class which provides ways to link the instance of a name with the entity (person, place, organization) being named. The 'att.naming' class provides the following attributes:
@key
provides an external means of locating a full definition of the entity, e.g. a database key
@nymRef
provides a means of locating the canonical form (<nym>) of the names associated with the object
@ref
provides an explicit means of locating a full definition of the entity by means of a URI

1.2. Personal Names

  • <persName> (a proper noun or proper-noun phrase referring to a person)
  • <forename> (a forename, given or baptismal name)
  • <surname> (a family (inherited) name)
  • <roleName> (a name component indicating a particular role or position)
  • <addName> (an additional name, such as a nickname)
  • <nameLink> (a phrase used within a name, but not part of it, such as 'van der')
  • <genName> (a generational name component)

1.3. Organizational Names

  • <orgName> (contains an organizational name)
  • Any named collection of people regarded as a single unit
  • <orgName> can be used both to mark the instances of names, and also inside <org> (discussed later) which contains the description of that organization

1.4. Place Names

  • <placeName> (an absolute or relative place name)
  • <bloc> (a geo-political unit of two or more countries)
  • <country> (a nation / country)
  • <region> (administrative unit, such as a state, province or county)
  • <settlement> (a settlement, such as a city or town )
  • <district> (a subdivision ,such as a parish or ward)
  • <geogName> (a name of a geographical feature)
  • <geogFeat> (a common noun identifying a geographical feature such as valley or mount)
  • <offset> (direction of offset of a relative temporal/spatial expression between two place names / dates)

2. Biographical and Prosopographical Data

Once you have marked up names of people/places/organizations you might want to point from those names to stored biographical and prosopographical data concerning the people/places/organizations.

2.1. Reality vs text

  • In text we see references to persons, places, organizations, names
  • P5 (for the first time) complements these with structured data for <person>, <place>, <org> elements
  • states, traits, and events
  • applications in in prosopography, historical datasets, etc.
  • These may be linked using ref or key attributes
  • and we can also treat names as objects, using the <nym> element

2.2. Person

  • <listPerson> (a list of person descriptions)
  • <personGrp> (group of individuals)
  • <person> (information about an individual)
  • <relationGrp> (information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations)

2.3. Personal data

Structured information about a person, distinct from their name/s
  • Three new model classes:
    • model.persTrait: traits, e.g. eye colour, ethnicity
    • model.persState: states, e.g. name, residence, occupation
    • model.persEvent: changes in state e.g. birth, marriage, death
  • in each class:
    • a small number of generally useful elements
    • one generic element, e.g. <persTrait>
  • attributes for dating (dateValue, notBefore, notAfter) and responsibility (resp)
  • relationships between people are represented by standoff <relation> element
  • <person> or <personGrp>, like <bibl>, can be regarded either as metadata or as content

2.4. Personal Characteristics

  • <trait> (some culturally-determined characteristic)
  • <faith> (faith or belief set of a person)
  • <langKnowledge> (summary of a person's linguistic competence)
    • <langKnown> (knowledge of a single language)
  • <nationality> (a person's present or past nationality or citizenship)
  • <sex> (the sex of a person)
  • <age> (the age of a person)
  • <socecStatus> (perceived social or economic status)

2.5. Personal States

  • <state> (a description of some ongoing status of a person/place/organization)
  • <occupation> (informal description of a trade or profession)
  • <residence> (a person's past or present place of residence)
  • <affiliation> (a person's past or present affiliation)
  • <education> (a description of a person's educational history)
  • <floruit> (information about a person's period of activity)

2.6. Personal Events

  • <birth> (information about a person's birth, such as its date and place)
  • <death> (information about a person's death, such as its date and place)
  • <event> (data relating to any kind of significant event associated with a person, place, or organization)

2.7. A simple person

<person age="18sex="1">
 <persName>
  <forename>Ichabod</forename>
  <surname>Crane</surname>
 </persName>
 <birth date="1756-03-17">
  <placeName>
   <settlement>New York</settlement>
   <country>USA</country>
  </placeName>
 </birth>
 <death date="1809-03-27">
  <placeName>
   <settlement>Washington, DC</settlement>
   <country>USA</country>
  </placeName>
 </death>
 <affiliation notBefore="1797-05notAfter="1798-10-31">Sleepy Hollow School</affiliation>
</person>

2.8. Relationships

  • <relationGrp> (information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations)
  • <relation> (describes any kind of relationship or linkage amongst a specified group of participants)
  • The <relation> element also has four important attributes:
    @name
    supplies a name for the kind of relationship of which this is an instance
    @active
    identifies the 'active' participants in a non-mutual relationship, or all the participants in a mutual one
    @mutual
    supplies a list of participants amongst all of whom the relationship holds equally
    @passive
    identifies the ‘passive’ participants in a non-mutual relationship

2.9. Organizations

  • <listOrg> (a list of descriptions of organizations)
  • <org> (information about an identifiable organization such as a business, a tribe, or any other grouping of people)
  • <orgName> (an organization's name)

2.10. Places

  • <listPlace> (a list of places)
  • <place> (contains data about a geographic location)
  • <placeName> (an absolute or relative place name)
  • <location> (the location of a place as a set of geographical coordinates, in terms of a other named geo-political entities, or as an address)
  • <geo> (geographical coordinates)

2.11. Place states, traits and events

In addition to the generic <state>, <trait>, and <event> elements, there are a few predefined for places:
  • <population> (information about the population of a place)
  • <climate> (information about the physical climate of a place)
  • <terrain> (information about the physical terrain of a place)

2.12. Place Example

<place xml:id="SH1">
 <placeName>Sleepy Hollow</placeName>
 <settlement>Sleepy Hollow</settlement>
 <district>Tarrytown</district>
 <region>New York</region>
 <country>USA</country>
 <climate>
  <p>Sleepy</p>
 </climate>
 <population when="1798-10-30">
  <p>78</p>
 </population>
 <population when="1798-10-31">
  <p>77</p>
 </population>
 <terrain>
  <p>Woody, with rolling hills, with large sections cleared for peach farming.</p>
 </terrain>
 <state notBefore="1798-07-10notAfter="1798-11-01">
  <p>Haunted occasionally by a Headless Horseman</p>
 </state>
</place>

2.13. Place relationships

  • <place> and <listPlace> (and event, trait and state) can self-nest indicating to indicate relationship
  • Alternatively <relation> can be used, as with <person> elements to indicate relations in a stand-off method
  • If the data forms a convenient hierarchy then nesting is easiest, but if it changes frequently or places belong to more than one categorization, then using <relation> is more flexible

2.14. Names and Nyms

Names can be regarded as objects in their own right irrespective of the object to which they are attached, e.g. in onomastic studies
  • <listNym> (a list of canonical names)
  • <nym> (the definition for a canonical name or namepart)
  • A <nym> can be seen as a specialised dictionary entry for a name, which might have multiple forms

2.15. All Together Example

<place type="cityxml:id="LYON1">
 <placeName notBefore="1400">Lyon</placeName>
 <placeName notAfter="0056">Lugdunum</placeName>
 <location>
  <geo>41.687142 -74.870109</geo>
 </location>
</place>
<p>Don't tell <forename nymRef="#N123ref="#BLT"> Tony</forename>...</p>
<!-- ... -->
<person xml:id="BLT">
 <persName>Tony Blair</persName>
 <occupation>politician</occupation>
</person>
<!--...-->
<nym xml:id="N123">
 <form>Antony</form>
 <form xml:lang="la">Antonius</form>
<!-- ... -->
</nym>

3. Dates

The support for dates in TEI P5 has concentrated on enabling greater use of international standards (W3C and ISO).

3.1. Dating Attributes

att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
@when
supplies the value of a date or time in a standard form
@notBefore
specifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form
@notAfter
specifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form
@from
indicates the starting point of the period in standard form
@to
indicates the ending point of the period in standard form

The W3C standard form for dates is YYYY-MM-DD.

3.2. Other Normalizations

For some uses the subset of ISO 8601 which is used by the W3C might not be enough, so the TEI provides an optional att.datable.iso and att.duration.iso classes to give the following attributes if needed:
@when-iso
the value of a date or time in a standard form
@notBefore-iso
the earliest possible date for the event
@notAfter-iso
the latest possible date for the event
@from-iso
the starting point of the period
@to-iso
the ending point of the period
@dur-iso
the length of this element in time

3.3. Relative Dates

Dates may also be provided not in an absolute way, but relative to something else
  • <offset> (the 'offset' component of a relative temporal expression)
The 'dur' attribute on the <date> and <time > elements can also be used to provide a period range. Though this is also available in ISO dateTime formulations.

4. Summary

Elements defined by namesdates module: addName affiliation age birth bloc climate country death district education event faith floruit forename genName geo geogFeat geogName langKnowledge langKnown listNym listOrg listPerson listPlace location nameLink nationality nym occupation offset org orgName persName person personGrp place placeName population region relation relationGrp residence roleName settlement sex socecStatus state surname terrain trait

5. Next...?

Next Dot will tell us about the Representation of Primary Sources.



James Cummings. Date: 2007-10-31
Copyright University of Oxford