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1. What's in a name?

  • We've already met <name> and <rs> for any form of name or referring string.
  • The namesdates module also provides specialisations of these: <persName>, <placeName>, and <orgName>
  • Each can be further decomposed
  • They can also be associated with a named entity

2. Personal Names

For example...
  • <persName> (personal name) a proper noun or proper-noun phrase referring to a person ... equivalent to <name type="person">
  • <surname> a family (inherited) name
  • <forename> a forename, given or baptismal name
  • <roleName> a name component indicating a particular role or position in society
  • <addName> (additional name) an additional name component such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name
  • <nameLink> a connecting phrase or link used within a name but not regarded as part of it
<persName xml:lang="zh-tw">
 <forename>夏爾</forename>
 <forename>皮耶</forename>
 <surname>波特萊爾</surname>
<roleName>
  <placeName>法國</placeName>象徵派詩人
 </roleName>
</persName>

3. Names as referents (1)

In a text we might find the same person referred to on different occasions in any number of different ways:
...<persName>Clara
Schumann</persName>.... <persName>Clara</persName> ....
<persName>Frau
Schumann</persName>

All of these names refer to the same entity

We can use an attribute on any naming element to specify which entity is being referenced:
  • key if we are supplying an externally-defined code for the entity
  • ref if we are pointing to a definition of the entity

4. Names as referents (2)

For example:-
....
<persName ref="#CS">Clara Schumann</persName>....
<persName ref="#CS">Clara</persName> ....

<persName ref="#CS">Frau Schumann</persName>
<!-- ... elsewhere -->
<person xml:id="CS">
 <persName xml:lang="de">
  <forename type="first">Clara</forename>
  <forename type="middle">Josephine</forename>
  <surname type="maiden">Wieck</surname>
  <surname type="married">Schumann</surname>
 </persName>
</person>

5. The thing itself (1)

TEI provides special-purpose elements for maintaining structured information about named entities (as well as their names):
  • <person>, <place>, <event>
  • may be grouped into <listPerson>, <listPlace>, <listEvent>
  • relationships can also be modelled, explicitly using <relation> or implicitly by context
<person xml:id="VM1893">
 <persName xml:lang="ru">Владимир Владимирович Маяковский</persName>
 <persName xml:lang="fr">Wladimir Maïakowski</persName>
 <birth when="1893-07-19">7 July (OS) 1893, <placeName ref="#BGDTxml:lang="en">Baghdati, Georgia</placeName>
 </birth>
 <death when="1930-04-14"/>
 <occupation>Poet and playwright, among the foremost representatives
   of early-20th century Russian Futurism.</occupation>
<!-- ... -->
</person>

6. Traits, states, and events

The scope of elements one might record for a named entity is large. The TEI provides three generic elements, and some specific ones.

We identify three main classes of information:
  • characteristics or traits which do not, by and large, change over time
  • characteristics or states which hold true only at a specific time
  • events or incidents which may lead to a change of state or, less frequently, trait

For a person, typical traits are such things as <faith>, <sex>, <socecStatus>; typical states are such things as <occupation>, <residence>, <education>; typical events are such things as <birth> and <death>.

7. Personal Relationships

  • <relationGrp> (relation group) provides information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations
  • <relation> (relationship) describes any kind of relationship or linkage amongst a specified group of participants
    name
    supplies a name for the kind of relationship of which this is an instance
    active
    identifies the 'active' participants in a non-mutual relationship, or all the participants in a mutual one
    mutual
    supplies a list of participants amongst all of whom the relationship holds equally
    passive
    identifies the ‘passive’ participants in a non-mutual relationship

7.1. Example

<person xml:id="jsbach">
 <persName>Johann Sebastian Bach</persName>
</person>
<person xml:id="cdbach">
 <persName>Catharina Dorothea Bach</persName>
</person>
<person xml:id="ghbach">
 <persName>Gottfried Heinrich Bach</persName>
</person>
<!--….-->
<relationGrp type="childrensubtype="first-marriage">
 <relation name="parentactive="#jsbachpassive="#cdbach"/>
<!--….-->
</relationGrp>
<relationGrp type="childrensubtype="second-marriage">
 <relation name="parentactive="#jsbachpassive="#ghbach"/>
<!--….-->
</relationGrp>

8. Other kinds of entity

<org>: a named collection of people regarded as a single unit, such as a business, institution, or tribe.

<place>: a named location of any kind (including mythological and non-terrestrial places)

These can be grouped in the same way (using <listOrg> or <listPlace>), and also have states, traits, and events.

9. Places

  • Places can be identified solely in terms of geographical features or locations, e.g.
    <place>
     <placeName>
      <geogFeat>mount</geogFeat>
      <geogName>Sinai</geogName>
     </placeName>
    </place>
  • More usually, they are identified in geo-political terms, using
    • adminstrative units such as <bloc>, <country>, <region>, <settlement>, <district>
    • physical location using <geo> and <offset>
  • Note that all these things are traits -- they may change over time

10. For example: Taipei region

<place xml:id="BGDT">
 <placeName xml:lang="zh-tw">士林夜市</placeName>
 <placeName xml:lang="en">Shilin</placeName>
 <location type="geopolitical">
  <country>Taiwan</country>
  <region>Taipei</region>
 </location>
 <location type="physical">
  <geo>25.0866 121.5254</geo>
 </location>
</place>

11. Places can be nested (unlike people)

<place xml:id="LT">
 <country>Lithuania</country>
 <country xml:lang="lt">Lietuva</country>
 <place xml:id="LT-VN">
  <settlement>Vilnius</settlement>
 </place>
 <place xml:id="LT-KA">
  <settlement>Kaunas</settlement>
 </place>
</place>


Arianna Ciula and TEI@Oxford authors. Date: February 2009
Copyright University of Oxford